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In PL/SQL, an error or a warning is called an exception. PL/SQL has some internally defined errors, and you can also define your own error conditions. When any error occurs, an exception is raised and program control is handed to the exception-handling section of the PL/SQL program. If you define your own error conditions, you have to raise exceptions by using a special RAISE statement. The following example shows an exception handler using the RAISE statement: DECLARE acct_type INTEGER := 7; BEGIN IF acct_type NOT IN (1, 2, 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER; -- raise predefined exception END IF; EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK; END; /

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PL/SQL offers you several types of control structures, which enable you to perform iterations of code or conditional execution of certain statements. The various types of control structures in PL/SQL are covered in the following sections.

Create locally managed tablespaces to take advantage of their superior space-management abilities. The benefits are especially significant if your database is an OLTP database with numerous inserts, deletes, and updates taking place on a continuous basis.

Besides the System and Sysaux tablespaces, you ll most likely also have undo and temporary tablespaces. You ll also use several other permanent tablespaces to hold your data and indexes. Here s a summary of the key types of tablespaces you re likely to encounter: Bigfile tablespaces are tablespaces with a single large data file, whose size can range from 8 to 128 terabytes, depending on the database block size. Thus, your database could conceivably be stored in just one bigfile tablespace. Smallfile tablespaces can contain multiple data files, but the files cannot be as large as a bigfile data file. Smallfile tablespaces, which are the traditional tablespaces, are the default in Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle creates both System and Sysaux tablespaces as smallfile tablespaces. Temporary tablespaces contain data that persists only for the duration of a user s session. Usually Oracle uses these tablespaces for sorting and similar activities for users. Permanent tablespaces include all the tablespaces that aren t designated as temporary tablespaces. Undo tablespaces contain undo records, which Oracle uses to roll back, or undo, changes to the database. Read-only tablespaces don t allow write operations on the data files in the tablespace. You can convert any normal (read/write) tablespace to a read-only tablespace in order to protect data or to eliminate the need to perform backup and recovery of large data files that don t change.

You will also learn how to add color to your output..

The Oracle database consists of the following three main types of files: Data files: These files store the table and index data. Control files: These files record changes to all database structures. Redo log files: These online files contain the changes made to table data. In addition to these three types of files, an Oracle database makes use of several other operating system files to manage its operations. These include initialization files (like init.ora and the SPFILE), network administration files (like tnsnames.ora and listener.ora), alert log files, trace files, and the password file. Although these are referred to as physical files, to distinguish them from the

logical entities they contain, understand that from an operating system point of view, even these files are not really physical, but rather are logical components of the actual physical disks used by the operating system.

Yes, unless Yes, but it you want to makes sense host in only in rare customized CLR scenarios environments like SQL Server 2005, or unless you have to execute in restricted CAS environments

Oracle data files make up the largest part of the physical storage of your database. A data file can belong to only one database, and one or more data files constitute the logical entity called the tablespace, which I described earlier in this chapter. Oracle data files constitute most of a database s total space. When the database instance needs to read table or index data, it reads that from the data files on disk, unless that data is already cached in Oracle s memory. Similarly, any new table or index data or updates to existing data will be written to the data files for permanent storage.

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